Jatra means festival, but in Bengali the word also came to be applied to plays performed at festivals. Heir of a long line of Nizams that went back two hundred years, this po- tentate was virtually all-powerful in the vast area under his control. Madan, as managing director of Madan Thea- tres Ltd. Yet the troublesome structure of the Indian language map de- manded concentration on Hindi. Throughout the s the difference between the salaries of top actors and other actors remained small by the standards of later years. Stories of this vein still command a vast audience in several lan- f guage areas.

Within a few years film production broke out like a rash in many parts of India. For these films the companies usually ar- ranged junkets of Tamil-speaking actors from Madras. She meanwhile meets a peasant boy and they fall in love. A film could also be uncertified at any time for any city by its Police Commissioner or for any province by provincial authority. A member of the Punjab board was asked: The film opened the following year in the one film theatre in Calcutta not owned by Madan, the Russa, where it was a resounding success. Dutt as financier, Laharrie as general manager, J. I did show an Indian picture at my Western theatre, Lanka Dalian, and I made 18, rupees in one week.

The films, however small, provided a varied fare. It was only in later years that people sahte aware of the changes that had taken place. Then the change came. In the moie versatile double system, picture and sound are kept separate foi flexibility in editing, to be combined in the laboratory as one of the final steps of the production process.

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Debaki Bose was a dev- otee, a Vaishnavite, who could speak freely about the film medium and what it could do in the cause of love, in a way that film makers of other nations would not be likely to d. That is the main thing.

Sircar, amused, gave him an adaptation exercise. He would quietly and carefully study a problem, then decide and proceed. A drift from rural areas to city factories augmented the boom. He persuaded a Maha- rashtrian woman, Kamala, to play the leading role in Bhasmasur Mohini, his second feature production.


While Sanskrit drama became an ornament of the courts, the ja- tras continued to entertain the common people. Born inhe had started out in his family’s musical instruments business, grown restless, gone into distribution of foreign films, and finally joined with tent showman Abdullaly Esoofally in buying the Alex- andra Cinema in and building the Majestic Cinema four years later.

She became, in fact, fu,l most important collaborator. Then he made a talkie, Gangavatarcn The Descent of Gangafor an- other company. Therefore offers made to film stars in the early s included a device that was apparently new to the film world.

But a producer could save various costs by shooting two or more versions simultaneously. In the catalogues of one English producer, distributor, and equipment manufacturer, James Williamson, films averaged GO— 7 5 feet in Lngti- in 1.

In an Assam theatre the tickets sold fo: Training programs became an extinct notion. Film history has been written largely by European sathr American writers.

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The committee had been appointed on October 6, The British social drama is as much an enigma i. Some said it ,ovie essential because of Hindu-Muslim fric- tion. The very name savours of a sickening restric- tion, and it is the hand of death if it touches a work of art.

In it offered, at one of its Hyderabad theatres, marry Bombay- produced film called Razia Begum, based on historic events and telling of a Muslim queen who fell in love with a Hindu subject. It is also not surprising that by the end of the s, capital was becoming scarce. Some became benevolent despots in tlieii territories.

Foreign markets came to represent pure profit. The story, from the Mahabharataw r as known to every Indian via uncounted centuries of oral tradition. He had meanwhile bought a projector and become an itinerant, open-air exhibitor of imported films. The committee went still further, and recommended the aboli- tion of all import duty tm raw film.


What was this Hindi? He took interest in every detail of laboratory work. Our trade is so closely interwoven with the interests of the pro- ducers and exhibitors that we cannot possibly think of doing so.

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Calcutta technicians from East India Film Company thus played a promi- nent roie in tlic iise of Madras as a production center. Thus the film world which the committee studied so assiduously was already marked for sweeping changes. Shah, who had written mythological films for several rising Bombay pioducers It was a time of tension and hunger but also of cntci prise.

Iliiuiiuously popular in Bengal, it put Bose in the front rank among directors. Although an Indian steel industry had been launched in the prewar years by the Fata family. Musicologists, just beginning to discover this same folk music, and to prize the way a song was sung in Assam in or in Orissa inhowled in fury.

How had such startling success been won? Unlike most film leaders, he seemed to have no consuming ambition to be performer or director.

These knew what they wanted, just as the financier knew what he wanted: In d Shah got a job on the Bombay Stock Exchange and felt he had settled down wathe a life of business. The railways, telegraphs, hospitals, lawyers, doctors and such-like have all to go.

Theatres were at first urged, not compelled, to show these films. Calcutta almost at once achieved a monopoly over Bengali pro- moviie, using this as a base for forays into other language mar- kets, especially Hindi.

In England Hepworth was one of the film makers visited by Phalke. The sight ol a widow on the screen was defiance of taboo on a grand scale.