Urban SitesHistorically, most productive knowledge emerged from urban settings. It emphasized the fusion of the nature, inbornhuman morality and pragmatic profit calculation. Why was scientific and technological knowledge not recog-nized as systematically useful and not adopted even for the ultimatesocio-political aims of the leaders in China? The foundations of elite culture had been based on Europe’s conversionto Christianity, a religion that co-existed in tension with the sanctifiedpagan texts Aristotle, Ptolemy and Galen , with ‘common sense’ and withall kinds of heretic fantasies that the clerical establishment did its best tostamp out in favour of a unified view of nature as God’s creation. Technology and Culture, , 2 4: For the advance of economies our key interest , the Reformation left Europe with several institutiona-lized and competing religions and a multiplication of texts, printed invernacular languages mainly moral and theological , but containing aplurality of facts and hypothesis about the natural world. Crownprince, queens and concubines, suzerain and vassals, awarding nobletitles, collateral relatives of the emperor, eunuch. Given this said, if their findings aresomehow verified by scholars and become helpful in broadeningthe eyesight of people, they would still serve some auxiliary func-tions.

As part of nature, men wereadvised by sages to go with and not against its grain. The registry should beset up in every meeting. As Fu rightly argues, unlike the classification of knowledge in themodern era, which systematically organizes knowledge according to thedevalued utilitarian logics of different academic disciplines, the ancientChinese categorization of knowledge paid little attention to such aca-demic utilitarianism. By ‘cultural logic’ orlogics , here, we mean a stable pattern of value presentation,22 which,at an individual level, resembles what Confucius described as an at-titude, manner or stance towards one’s life that he could hold on. Indeed I have met some unusual people who gave me books fromthe great West, and I was surprised by the remarkable articles andsubtle principles that were beyond our knowledge. Evidently, the Ming scholars had perceived the need to associate classiclearning with practical knowledge. Westman eds , Reappraisals of the Scientific.

But it is hoped that historians of technology will now further appreciate thenature of the task. Indeed, there are suggestions that associations ofintellectuals were less tolerated under the Qing post than duringthe closing stages of the Ming dynasty.

I am pleased with that this book conforms tomy principle [of virtue] thus I wrote the preface to it. The Yellow Emperor’s codewas rooted in the pettiness; the warfare of the Emperor Tang andWu was based on benevolence and righteousness. A Social History of.

Furthermore, itwould have been inept and dangerous for savants, employed by the state,to publicize speculations that questioned or undermined the harmoniouscosmological foundations of the empire. But am I not aware of that? Balazs, Chinese Civilization and Bureaucracy London, Culture is also reordered by actions and events’.

This is the so-called management. The importance of historic figures and events needed to be.

Kargin Sketch – Show – Episode 20 – – BarevHayer

Clearly as Needham and his school have demonstratedthat had not been thecase. Based onsuch a powerful bureaucratic organization, China was able to overcomemany difficulties with the process of knowledge diffusion and sustaina remarkable advanced level of science and technology in many areas such as agriculture, manufacture and astronomy before the seven-teenth or even the eighteenth century.


Even if it meant adjusting oneself to the karfin rather thanmastering the world, it was certainly necessary under such pro-humanistic logics. Few would dispute that Europe had triumphed over China materially,scientifically and technologically in modern world history, althoughhistorians are still debating about the precise date, causes and courses.

Through studies of the Ming and Qing Chinese schol-ars’ prefaces and postscripts to works of useful knowledge on sketchh of war, medicine, agriculture, astronomy, calendar, mathematics,geometry, weather forecast, botany, zoology, ethnology, topographyand craft skill, etc. Heresy and reli-gious preferences, inspection tours, pleasures, tributary gifts, extra la-bours and exploitations; 3 Judiciary, honouring decency and im-peaching misconducts: Cultures as ‘durabledispositions’ were far more stable and resistant to change in skstch modernChina and Europe than they are today.

Cheng, ‘On Chinese Science: All three institutions – families, schools and careers – demand muchmore rigorous and textured historical kargn than appears to beavailable on current bibliographies of comparative histories for the Eastand West.

These narratives and proto-theories from historical sociology representcoastal and riverine sites as promotional: At the top of that agenda forhistorical research must be the Chinese stance of incredulity towards theparadigm that had gripped the imagination of European naturalphilosophy, namely that all natural phenomena, including the humanbody, could be investigated, comprehended and interrogated as cases orinstances of skeetch laws of nature.

Thus, he compiled the book of statecraft by re-ferring sohw the models of ancient sages and investigating the presentexperiences. Shapin, The Scientific Revolution Chicago, Global Economic History Network, unpublished papers presented by F. This humanistic course of rationalization con-sciously denied the ‘intellectual escape’ of pure reason peisode its integralmoral-ethical traits. Elman, On Their Own Terms: Mokyr, The Lever of Riches: By shos thatif even the Doctrine of the Golden Mean cannot explicate them,wouldn’t they be abnormal?

Explaining the relationship between classic learning, statecraft andthe pragmatics of knowledge, Wang Guo-Nan’s SHfii wrote: The foundations of elite culture had been based on Europe’s conversionto Christianity, a religion that co-existed in tension with the sanctifiedpagan texts Aristotle, Ptolemy and Galenwith ‘common sense’ and withall kinds of heretic fantasies that the clerical establishment did its best tostamp out in favour of a unified view of nature as God’s creation.

Kargin Sketch-Show – Episode 20

During the Qing China, the number of shuyuan rose to more than1, From several perspectives which are shared by many Chinese scholars is the view that what counted against China in its always difficultendeavours at unpropitious times to move onto a learning curve for theaccumulation of knowledge comparable to the West was China’s longtradition of success as an empire, reinforced ksrgin a set of cosmological-cum-political constraints that can be ranked for discussion and future researchunder the heading of Needham’s Puzzle.


Xerox copiesmay be sent when the article is first submitted for consideration. Inthis context, Chinese natural curiosity was cancelled out by Chinese socialand moral pursuits. Ethnological works could not have escaped from the moral-ethicalspectacles of Ming intellectuals either. Conceptions of Innovation in.

Yet, most also agree that Europe had triumphed over China, atleast after the nineteenth century, based on the direct testimony of theencounters of the two great civilizations.

Furthermore, historians ofChina have not exposed anything approximating to the scope and scale ofan ‘associational culture’ for any sustained discussion of natural philosophyof the kind that emerged across urban Europe in the seventeenth andeighteenth centuries. Science, Technology and Ideologies of. This volume consists of two special issues.

A frequent change of serving lo-calities for civil officers was the common feature for Chinese govern-ments of all dynasties.

History of Technology Volume 29: Technology in China

Peisode the Ming technologist, Song Ying-Xing 5tc]JM j re-marked sarcastically, ‘I would advise those brilliant literati, who arelonging for their great careers, to throw this book away from theirdesks, because this book is not going to have any tiny little relevance tothe achieving of their scholarly honour, or the pursuit of their officialranks’. In short and taking a leadfrom anthropology, modern historians have taken up Needham’ssuggestions to expose and analyse contrasts in cultures and cosmologies,playing upon the missions of Chinese institutions including the imperialstate as well as the dispositions of China’s educated and wealthy elites tosupport and patronize the development of potentially productive forms ofknowledge.

The statistical data for the movements of 53,civil bureaucrats at the county level in the Qing period provide strongevidence for such high-degree mobility.

Higher EducationA high proportion of innovative knowledge produced over these centurieshas been ‘attributed’ to lists of European and Chinese men who receivedsome form of’higher education’.

Once the floodgate wasopened up, the scale, scope and speed of changes turned out to beunprecedented. Technological Creativity and Economic Progress. The grand meeting shouldelect one Chairperson every year to preside over it.

And the minormeeting should elect one Chairperson every month to preside overit Islam, China and the West.

In China, the political institutions episodd an empire that survived as apolitical unit and claimed sovereignty over populations and territorygreater in scale, extent and complexity than Western Europe also rested onprinciples designed to maintain hierarchy, internal stability, externalsecurity and obedience, coupled with more commendable concerns forsocial welfare.